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Questions
With the change of social/natural environment and lifestyle, with a constantly growing incidences of leukemia, lymphoma, lupus erythematosus, allergic asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, recurrent miscarriage and other immune-related diseases and an increasingly larger population in sub-health condition, what underlying changes are happening in human's immune system?
 
CD4 cells---Commander in Chief of human's immune system
CD4 cell, a subset of T lymphocyte, is the most important immune cell of the body to regulate human's immune system. It's the Commander of all immune cells and provides help and guidance to for other cells, thus enabling normal operations of human's immune system, therefore it is called "Commander in Chief" of human's immune system.

CD4 cell count normally ranges between 450-1440 per cubic millimeter. However, when the human body is invaded by bacteria or virus, or its immune system is disbalanced, CD4 count will fluctuate significantly, thus directly reflecting human body's immune status.
 
 
Severely weakened immunity
 
Lowered immunity
 
Weakened Immunity
 
Normal Immunity
 
CD3 cell
CD3 cell is mature T lymphocyte that normally ranges from 955 to 2870 per cubic liter and is an important marker of human's immune status.
 
CD8 cell
CD8 cell is a type of T lymphocytes that exhibits cytotoxic activity and can recognize and kill cancer cells and cells infected with a virus. It works together with CD4 cells to defend the human body against outside invaders and normally ranges between 320-1250 per cubic liter of blood.
 
CD4/CD8 Ratio
With a limited number of total T lymphocytes, CD4 or CD8 counts may increase or decrease with the incidence of diseases. Therefore, CD4/CD8 ratio is a very sensitive marker of human's immune function.

The normal CD4/CD8 ratio is between 1.000.90 to 2.87. Too high a ratio means cells' immune function is over activated, while too low a ratio may indicate "immune depressions", which frequently occurs in immune deficiency diseases, malignant tumor, etc; CD4/CD8 ratio lower than 1.000.90 is called "reverse", a very obvious abnormal symptom in clinical assessment.
 
Correlations between T lymphocyte subsets and diseases
CD3/CD4/CD8 count is of great importance in the clinical diagnosis, disease progression monitoring and efficacy evaluations of diseases such as tumor, cardiovascular disease, hyper tension, diabetes, viral infection, autoimmune disease, immune deficiency disease, trauma, acute infection, multiple organ failure, organ transplantation, etc.
 
Type Disease CD3 CD4 CD8 CD4/CD8
Cardiovascular Cerebral hemmorrhage ↓(significant) ↓(major cause)
Hyper tension ↓(significant ↓(significant) ↑(S)
Viral Infections Chronic hepatitis B ↓(S) ↑(S)
Tuberculous peritonitis ↓(S) ↓(S) ↓(S)
Tumor Malignant tumor ↓(S) ↓(S) ↓(S)
Respiratory disease COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in the elderly
Tuberculosis ↓(S)
Chronic bronchitis in the elderly
Endocrine and metabolic disorders Type 2 diabetes ↓(S) ↑(S)
Autoimmune diseases Rheumatoid arthritis ↓(S) ↑(S)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) ↓(S) ↓(S)
ENT Diseases Periodontosis ↓(S) ↓(S)
Allergic rhinitis ↑(S) ↑(S) ↓(S) ↑(S)
Pregnancy related conditions Pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome ↑(S) ↓(S) ↑(S)
Recurrent miscarriage ↓(S)
Organ transplantation Cytomegalovirus after kidney transplantation ↓(S) ↑(S) ↓(S)
Liver transplant recipient ↑(S) ↓(S) ↑(S)
……
The above statistics are sourced from published clinical data. Due to different assay procedures or differences in individual clinical cases, different or even contrary collusions may be drawn for some diseases (such as malignant tumor, systemic lupus erythematosus, type 2 diabetes, etc.).

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